General common knowledge is factual information considered to be in the public domain, such as birth and death dates of well-known figures, and generally accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other historical events.
Treat the text the same as you would if someone else wrote it. Use a signal phrase to help your reader understand why the facts are being cited, unless it is clear enough without one. It may include facts, theories, or methods that are familiar to readers within that discipline.
If in doubt, be cautious and cite the source. Siegel writes that although the relationship between brain chemistry and thoughts and feelings is not fully understood, we do know that our psychological state affects our physical state.
Example 2 Original Acceptable Paraphrase Current political and economic incentives favor industry and other interest groups at the expense of health: Checking Research Papers Be sure to edit your research paper carefully and check for plagiarism before turning it in to the class.
This usually entails the addition of the author s and the date of the publication or similar information. Do not take the chance of not checking your research paper. This is plagiarism, even if you use a signal phrase and include a parenthetical citation. Field-specific common knowledge is "common" only within a particular field or specialty.
The New England Journal of Medicine, ; Quoting must be done correctly to avoid plagiarism allegations. Using Multiple Strategies to Paraphrase Original Acceptable Paraphrase 1 Acceptable Paraphrase 2 We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body.
When using sources in your papers, you can avoid plagiarism by knowing what must be documented. If you do use more than two words together, you will have to use quotation marks. No one wants to be misquoted. If a source provided any of these, you need to acknowledge the source. Follow the directions for this page carefully.
A clear signal phrase should alert your readers for each quotation and tell them why the quotation is there. A signal phrase should let your readers know where the summarized material begins as well as tell them why the summary is included in your paper. A good paraphrase combines a number of strategies: Put quotation marks around the excerpt, and put brackets around the segments you have changed.
The steps above are essential for research paper writing. Put quotation marks around the excerpt, use a signal phrase, and include a parenthetical citation with the page number: What did the writer do?
Used Synonyms An overabundance of rainfall can also be a factor in spreading infectious diseases carried by water, usually as a result of overflowing sewers and pollution from farm animals Shuman, Plagiarism could mean the loss of your academic degree or career.
Changed Clause to Phrase The prevalence and impact of non-communicable diseases continue to grow. Information and Ideas Even if you use your own words, if you obtained the information or ideas you are presenting from a source, you must document the source.
This process takes time, but the effort pays off! Use a signal phrase and include a parenthetical citation with the page number: Summaries Paraphrasing Any summaries of the text should not include plagiarized wording.
Make sure that you do not copy verbatim more than two words in a row from the text you have found. Summaries must be followed by parenthetical citations.
Again, this page must meet the document formatting guidelines used by your educational institution. New England Journal of Medicine;12, Academic writing in American institutions is filled with rules that writers often don’t know how to Since teachers and administrators may not distinguish between deliberate and accidental plagiarism, the heart of avoiding plagiarism is to make sure you give credit where it is due.
James F., and Dean Memering. Brief Handbook for. Open education resources for academic writing. APA Citations, Using Evidence, and the Writing Process Plagiarism Prevention Resource Kit: APA Citations, Using Evidence, and the Writing Process Plagiarism can be an intimidating concept for many student writers.
Everyone wants to avoid plagiarism, but it can be unclear what exactly.
Avoiding Plagiarism. Accidental plagiarism usually occurs because we do not understand the cultural conventions of academic writing and citation. In most western countries, and certainly in the United States, there is a very real sense that writers own their ideas and the words they use to express those ideas.
As John R. Edlund explains. Academic writing Active Reading Analyzing a Text Rhetorical Concepts Academic Writing: Point of View Multilingual Writers and ESL Challenges Verb Forms: The Basics Verb Tenses: Active Voice Avoiding Plagiarism by Robin Jeffrey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution International License.
Handbook Index; Academic and Professional Writing; Analysis Papers; Use the menu below to learn more about quoting and paraphrasing. How to avoid plagiarism; Should I paraphrase or quote? College writing often involves integrating information from published sources into your own writing in order to add credibility and authority--this.
Academic Integrity at MIT A Handbook for Students.
Search form. Search. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Avoiding Plagiarism - Paraphrasing. In writing papers, you will paraphrase more than you will quote. For a report or research paper, you may need to gather background information that is important to the paper but not .Download