Utilitarianism also called consequentialism is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill Second, humans should be treated as objects of intrinsic moral value; that is, as ends in themselves and never as a mere means to some other end say, overall happiness or welfare.
For Aristotle, this belief was mostly Comparing ethical theories as well. Nevertheless, justified or unjustified, deontological ethics imply that humans are ends in themselves with intrinsic value.
Insists on rules that are logical and applicable to all. He said we have an obligation to Comparing ethical theories the right thing.
What about in self-defense, or in war, an abortion?
What should I do? Immanuel Kant [Duty Ethics] 5. Kant believed that this was a false construct, because goodwill was unquantifiable, and was determined by law so it never changed. Here are the rules for Duty Ethics: A qualified rule is something that is okay or not okay, except under certain circumstances.
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Suffice it to say that the majority of moral philosophers and theologians have found it defective. It says, the maxim rule is right if one would want to be treated that way themselves. He also says, to be moral, an action must be voluntary. Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs.
Holds up virtues as ideals, as well as determinants of morality. More plainly stated, in most situations, the morality of an individual is judged by his action, not by the outcome of that action.
You develop an image of what the ideal person is.
Both men argued and understood that there were some actions that were intrinsically evil, and should never be taken. But these acts are clearly immoral regardless of how fruitful they might be for the greatest number.
Consequences help us find what is our duty, they are not what make something our duty. To use each other is immoral. There are several varieties of utilitarianism.
For example, a doctor may have a duty to benefit a patient, and he or she may need to know what medical consequences would result from various treatments in order to determine what would and would not benefit the patient. One main problem is that utilitarianism, if adopted, justifies as morally appropriate things that are clearly immoral.
Would it be right to lie to your spouse? Kant believed that morality was ruled by laws and codes of actions. Second, how do you check to make sure that you have come up with a good rule? Male and Female Ethics Women tend to live in a world of social relations, emotions.
Because I said so! There are some staunch and subtle difference between the two men. He says, morality is discovered by pure reason not by law or consequences.
Aristotle argued that a person was virtuous if he upheld goodwill for the greatest good and made choices based on that ideal. He does not indicate which rules you should follow.
Rather, the rightness or wrongness of an act or rule is solely a matter of the overall nonmoral good e. It says, it makes sense to be truthful.Ethical Theories Compared This is a quick overview of some relations between utilitarian, deontological, and Aristotelian ethical theories. For links to many excellent internet resources on these ethical theories and others, see 5/5(1).
Ethical theory serves as the foundation for ethical solutions to the difficult situations people encounter in life. In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically.
Here are a few ethical theories to whet your appetite: Virtue [ ]. The following is an excerpt from article DE from the Christian Research Institute. The full pdf can be viewed by clicking here. Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs.
Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Utilitarianism. Compare and contrast the application of two ethical theories to a moral dilemma. Discuss the reasons for arguing that one of these theories is more effective than the other.
Extracts from this document. Comparing Ethical Theories ETH/ January 1, Comparing Ethical Theories Ethics is a philosophy that studies morality.
Principles of doing right and wrong are inspired by ethical theories such as virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontology. Virtue Ethics Virtue is synonymous with quality. Kant's theories are argued from a deontological perspective, in that they are not situational. Kant believed that morality was ruled by laws and codes of actions.
Aristotle argued that morality was ruled as a variance between extremes.Download