He used automatism to create his novel Nadja and used photographs to replace description as a parody of the overly-descriptive novelists he often criticized.
In Postmodernist literature this can be an homage to or a parody of past styles. These are not used by all postmodernists, nor is this an exclusive list of features.
Though the technique has its roots in traditional storytelling, it was a center piece of the Latin American "boom"a movement coterminous with postmodernism. Anagramsby David R. Pastiche can instead involve a compositional technique, for example the cut-up technique employed by Burroughs.
Postmodernists, however, often demonstrate that this chaos is insurmountable; the artist is impotent, and the only recourse against "ruin" is to play within the chaos.
His later work, likewise, featured characters stuck in inescapable situations attempting impotently to communicate whose only recourse is to play, to make the best of what they have. These writers have occasionally also been referred to as the "Postmoderns" see especially references by Charles Olson and the Grove anthologies edited by Donald Allen.
The plays of the Theatre of the Absurd parallel postmodern fiction in many ways. In fact, several novelists later to be labeled postmodern were first collectively labeled black humorists: For example, metafiction and pastiche are often used for irony.
Though this is now a less common usage of "postmodern", references to these writers as "postmodernists" still appear and many writers associated with this group John AshberyRichard BrautiganGilbert Sorrentinoand so on appear often on lists of postmodern writers.
In character development, both modern and postmodern literature explore subjectivismturning from external reality to examine inner states of consciousness, in many cases drawing on modernist examples in the " stream of consciousness " styles of Virginia Woolf and James Joyceor explorative poems like The Waste Land by T.
His works published after are mostly meta-literary attempts that must be read in light of his own theories and previous works and the attempt to deconstruct literary forms and genres.
Joyce, one of the exemplars of modernism, celebrated the possibility of language; Beckett had a revelation in that, in order to escape the shadow of Joyce, he must focus on the poverty of language and man as a failure.
Which Was a Dream. He also employs a character in the novel named David Foster Wallace. Another way Dadaism influenced postmodern literature was in the development of collage, specifically collages using elements from advertisement or illustrations from popular novels the collages of Max Ernstfor example.
Kurt Vonnegut also commonly used this technique: Modernist literature sees fragmentation and extreme subjectivity as an existential crisis, or Freudian internal conflict, a problem that must be solved, and the artist is often cited as the one to solve it.
One writer associated with the Beat Generation who appears most often on lists of postmodern writers is William S.
By some accounts, the term was coined by Robert Scholes in his book The Fabulators. Rather, it could also indicate a reaction against modernism in the wake of the Second World War with its disrespect for human rights, just confirmed in the Geneva Conventionthrough the rape of Nankingthe Bataan Death Marchthe atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasakithe Holocaustthe bombing of Dresdenthe fire-bombing of Tokyoand Japanese American internment.
Fabulation[ edit ] Fabulation is a term sometimes used interchangeably with metafiction and relates to pastiche and Magic Realism. He had close ties with modernism because of his friendship with James Joyce ; however, his work helped shape the development of literature away from modernism.
Though the idea of employing these in literature did not start with the postmodernists the modernists were often playful and ironicthey became central features in many postmodern works. In addition, both modern and postmodern literature explore fragmentariness in narrative- and character-construction.
Thus, fabulation challenges some traditional notions of literature—the traditional structure of a novel or role of the narrator, for example—and integrates other traditional notions of storytelling, including fantastical elements, such as magic and myth, or elements from popular genres such as science fiction.
For example, it contains characters named Mike Fallopian and Stanley Koteks and a radio station called KCUF, while the novel as a whole has a serious subject and a complex structure. Though pastiche commonly involves the mixing of genres, many other elements are also included metafiction and temporal distortion are common in the broader pastiche of the postmodern novel.
Brian McHale details his main thesis on this shift, although many postmodern works have developed out of modernism, modernism is characterised by an epistemological dominant while postmodernism works are primarily concerned with questions of ontology. This labeling, however, is not without its problems.
Burroughs uses science fiction, detective fiction, westerns; Margaret Atwood uses science fiction and fairy tales; Giannina Braschi mixes poetry, commercials, musical, manifesto, and drama; Umberto Eco uses detective fiction, fairy tales, and science fiction, Derek Pell relies on collage and noir detective, erotica, travel guides, and how-to manuals, and so on.
It was rejected for publication and remained supposedly lost until published posthumously in An early 20th century example of intertextuality which influenced later postmodernists is " Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote " by Jorge Luis Borgesa story with significant references to Don Quixote which is also a good example of intertextuality with its references to Medieval romances.
Notable influences[ edit ] Playwrights who worked in the late 19th and early 20th century whose thought and work would serve as an influence on the aesthetic of postmodernism include Swedish dramatist August Strindbergthe Italian author Luigi Pirandelloand the German playwright and theorist Bertolt Brecht.
In the s, artists associated with Dadaism celebrated chance, parody, playfulness, and challenged the authority of the artist.
Along with Beckett and Borges, a commonly cited transitional figure is Vladimir Nabokov ; like Beckett and Borges, Nabokov started publishing before the beginning of postmodernity in Russian, in English. One of the most important figures to be categorized as both Absurdist and Postmodern is Samuel Beckett.
The prefix "post", however, does not necessarily imply a new era. Intertextuality in postmodern literature can be a reference or parallel to another literary work, an extended discussion of a work, or the adoption of a style. Irony, playfulness, black humor[ edit ] Linda Hutcheon claimed postmodern fiction as a whole could be characterized by the ironic quote marks, that much of it can be taken as tongue-in-cheek.Postmodern literature is literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II ultimedescente.comdern works are seen as a response against dogmatic following of Enlightenment thinking and Modernist approaches to literature.
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