Racism exists at multiple levels, including interpersonal, environmental, institutional, and cultural Harrell ; Jones; Krieger Evaluating different coping approaches In the next three sections, we review in detail the data on the effectiveness of three coping approaches that have been considered as responses to racism: Threat and harassment can include potential or actual damage to an individual or his or her family or property because of ethnicity or race.
A variety of coping strategies may be needed at each point. Measures which include items assessing both immediate and longer term responses and inquire about the circumstances of exposure to maltreatment are needed. Finally, we discuss theoretical and methodological issues that are important to consider when conducting and evaluating research on strategies for coping with racism.
These coping approaches have received sufficient research attention to permit a systematic review of evidence regarding their effectiveness for both mental and physical health outcomes. However, a focus on stress-buffering is warranted since the aim of the paper is to identify those strategies which might be effective in ameliorating the health effects of exposure to racism, and could form the basis of coping-based interventions.
Although much of the research on coping with racism has focused on African American samples, we have included the available data on other groups, including individuals of Asian and Latino a descent as well.
Any of these discriminatory acts can be overt, such that the racial bias is made explicit e. Racism as a stressor A number of conceptual models, including those which consider racism within stress and coping frameworks, have described the ways that racism may confer risk for health impairment Anderson et al.
There are no population-based epidemiological data on the strategies most commonly used to cope with episodes of ethnicity-related maltreatment at the time of the event.
Each of these measures is subject to the limitations of traditional self-reported trait coping indices Lazarus We examine empirical support for the role of these coping strategies in buffering the impact of racism on specific health-related outcomes, including mental health i.
These outcomes were chosen because they have been among those most consistently identified as correlates of racism Paradies His model highlights the importance of distinguishing between tasks that serve to prevent personal injury e.
We restrict the reviews to published, peer-reviewed papers. Workplace discrimination includes acts directed at individuals of a particular race or ethnicity that range from the expression of lowered expectations to a refusal to promote or hire. Racism has also been linked to several other health conditions Paradiesand to perceived health, which is itself a predictor of all-cause mortality Borrell et al.
Targets must cope with the substance of racism, such as interpersonal conflict, blocked opportunities, and social exclusion. Members of most ethnic or racial minority groups report exposure over the course of their lifetime, and recent research indicates that episodes of ethnicity-related maltreatment occur on a weekly basis for some groups Brondolo et al.
Mellor suggests an alternate framework for organizing racism-related coping that focuses on the function of the coping strategies versus the content of their focus. However, the bulk of empirical research on coping with racism focuses on strategies for coping with interpersonal racism.
A coping response may be said to buffer stress when, among individuals exposed to the stressor, those who engage in that response or who engage in it to a greater degree are less likely to experience a negative outcome than those who do not or who engage in it to a lesser degree.
Figure 1 provides a graphical illustration of these different possible pathways. There are very limited population-based data on the strategies used to manage discrimination in general. Consequently, one of the most serious challenges facing minority group members is the need to develop a broad range of racism-related coping responses to permit them to respond to different types of situations and to adjust the response depending on factors that might influence the effectiveness of any particular coping strategy.Just like most academic papers, literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section; the body of the review containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper.
Coping With Racism: A Selective Review of the Literature and a Theoretical and Methodological Critique. Elizabeth Brondolo, Ph.D., Nisha Brady, We begin with a discussion of the ways in which racism acts as a stressor and requires the mobilization of coping resources.
Next, we examine available models for describing and. Transgender Research Literature Review Kara Devaney Michigan State University. transgender population focus on medical aspects of gender identity and not the psychosocial identity of the individual.
The medical research that exists is pathological in nature, that is, it identifies there is a current discussion about the inclusion of. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON ETHNICITY, NATIONAL IDENTITY AND RELATED MISSIOLOGICAL STUDIES A Review of Literature on “Ethnicity” and “National Identity” discussion of the other three IDENTITY THEFT LITERATURE REVIEW Prepared for presentation and discussion at the National Institute of Justice Focus Group Meeting to develop a research agenda to.
LITERATURE? AN OVERVIEW When the English preacher and writer Sidney Smith asked in“In the Search for Identity 4 WHAT IS AMERICAN LITERATURE?
Amer. Passages # stud intro 8/30/05 PM Page 4. This two-part question should trigger discussion about issues such as, Who belongs to America? When and how .Download